英语语法知识点:特殊疑问句

英语语法知识点:特殊疑问句

时间:2018-11-24 英语语法

  【导语】英语语法让很多学生都头疼,因为复杂难懂的句式和词组有时难以记忆。为大家整理了小学英语语法大全,希望对同学们的英语语法学习有所帮助。更多内容尽在。

  特殊疑问句

  用疑问词引导的疑问句叫做特殊疑问句。回答特殊疑问句时不能用yes 或no 。用降调。为了便于理解、掌握特殊疑问句,我们把疑问词分为三类:

  疑问代词:what ,who ,Which ,whose ,whom

  疑问副词:when ,where ,why ,how

  疑问形容词:what (which ,whose )+名词

  1 疑问代词的用法

  1.what 引导的疑问句

  此类疑问句可以对主语、表语和宾语提问。

  a.对主语提问

  What is in your pocket ?

  你口袋里有什么?

  这个问题可以有两种回答:

  a :There is an egg in it.

  在口袋里有一个蛋。

  b :An egg is (in it ).

  一个蛋(在里面)。

  What's in the room ?

  屋子里有什么?

  There are a lot of chairs in it.

  =A 1ot of chairs are in it.有许多椅子。

  注意

  回答此句型的问题时,答句的单复数根据实际情况而定。

  b.对宾语提问

  What did you buy ?你买了什么?

  I bought a bike.我买了辆自行车。

  c.对表语提问

  What is this ?这是什么?

  It's a bench.这是一条长凳。

  What is your mother ?你妈妈是干什么的?

  注意

  What is +人?此句型是问人的职业,一般译为“是干什么的?”

  She is a teacher.她是个老师。

  2.Who ,whom ,whose 引导的疑问句

  此类疑问句可以对主语、表语和宾语提问。

  Who broke the window ?(对主语提问)谁打破了窗户?

  who 可以对主语和表语提问。whom 是who 的宾格,对宾语提问,但在口语中who 可以代替whom 。

  Li Ming did.李明打破的。

  Who is that woman ?(对表语提问)那个女人是谁?

  She is my mother.她是我妈妈。(关系)

  或者:She is Rose.她是罗思。(姓名)

  注意

  Who is +人?是询问某人的姓名或与人关系的问句。与What is +人?(问人的职业)不同。

  Whose is this umbrella ?这伞是谁的?

  This umbrella is my sister's.这伞是我姐姐的。

  注意

  whose 之后如果没有名词时,表示“谁的(东西)”。

  Which 引导的特殊疑问句此类疑问句可以对主语和宾语提问。

  Which is Tom's ?(对主语提问)哪个是汤姆的?

  This is his.这是他的。

  Which does he want ?(对宾语提问)他想要哪一个?

  He wants the green one.他想要那个绿色的。

  注意

  疑问词what ,who ,which 在句中作主语时,语序是陈述句语序。

  2 疑问形容词的用法

  what ,which ,whose 后面跟上名词时,这三个疑问词起形容词作用。

  What sports do you like ?(对宾语提问)

  你喜欢什么运动?

  I like basketball.我喜欢篮球。

  Whose pens are these ?(对表语提问)

  这些是谁的钢笔?

  They are Li Ming's.这些是李明的。

  Whose father died two years ago ?(对主语提问)两年前谁的父亲死了?

  Which picture did you take ?(对宾语提问)哪一张照片是你拍的?

  I took the one on the right.右边的那一张是我拍的。

  3 疑问副词的用法

  句型:疑问副词+一般疑问句的语序~?

  (疑问副词在句中作状语,所以它们不可能对主语提问)

  1.when 引导的疑问句:询问时间

  When were you born ?你何时出生?

  (I was born )on June 5 ,1962.我是1962 年6 月5 日出生的。

  注意

  when 引起的疑问句,都可用简略式回答,只回答出时间就可以了。

  When will you go to Japan ?你什么时候去日本?

  (I'll go there )next year.我明年去那儿。

  when 问的是具体时间,所以不能和完成时连用。

  (×)When have you been here ?

  (○)How long have you been here ?你呆在这里有多久了?

  (○)When did you come here ?你什么时候来这里的?

  2.where 引导的疑问句:询问地点、场所

  Where do you live ?你住在哪儿?

  (I live in )Beijing.(可以简略回答出地点)我住在北京。

  Where are you going ?你准备去什么地方?

  I am going to Japan.我准备去日本。

  3.why 引导的疑问句:询问原因

  它的回答只能用because 引导的原因状语从句。

  Why are you late ?你为什么迟到?

  Because I met the accident.因为我遇上车祸了。

  Why didn't you see the movie ?=Why did you not see the movie ?

  你为什么不去看那部电影?

  Because I had seen it before.因为我已经看过了。

  4.how 引导的疑问句:可分为两类

  a." How ?"how 可单独地置于疑问句的句首。

  询问如何地做某事即做某事的方法、手段及健康、天气

  How do you go to school ?(问方式)

  I go to school by bus.我坐公共汽车。

  How are you ?(问健康)你身体怎样?

  I'm fine. Thank you !我很好。谢谢你。

  How is the weather today ?(问天气)今天天气如何?

  It's cloudy.今天多云。表示方式、方法、手段的介词

  1 .by :表示交通工具,用哪一种方式

  by bus 搭公车

  by train 搭火车

  by bike 骑自行车

  by air =by plane 乘飞机

  by sea =by ship 乘船

  此时,名词前不加冠词。

  2 .with :表示工具、器官

  with a pen 用笔

  with a pencil 用铅笔

  with my mouth 用我的嘴

  with my eyes 用我的眼睛

  How did you eat ? 你怎样吃的?

  I eat with a spoon . 我用勺吃。

  此时的名词前要加冠词或代词。

  3 .in :表示方法

  I say in English .

  我用英语说。

  其他:in ink 用墨水

  注意

  How ?

  How are you ?

  How do you do ?

  你好吗?

  How about ~?

  = How about ~?

  如何?

  How do you like ~?

  =What do you think of ~?

  你觉得怎样?

  b :How +形容词(副词)~?

  询问年龄、身高、数量、次数、距离

  词 组词 义例 句

  How many

  多少(可数名词)

  How many sisters do you have ?你有多少姐妹?

  How much 多少

  (不可数名词)

  How much is the book ?这本书多少钱?

  How old 多大

  (岁数)

  How old are you ?你有多大年纪?

  How tall 多高

  (人、树)

  How tall is that tree ?那棵树有多高?

  多少时间

  (多久)

  How long will you stay here ?你将停留这里多久?

  How long 多长

  (长度)

  How long is the rope ?这绳子多长?

  How often 多久

  (频率)

  How often do you visit here ?你多久来拜访这里?

  How soon多快

  (时间)

  How soon will he be back ?他多久会回来?

  How far多远

  (距离)

  How far is it from A to B ?从A 到B 有多远?

  How high多高

  (山)

  How high is Mt.Fuji ?富士山有多高?

  初三英语上册知识点:疑问词+不定式动词结构

  英语有个很有用的结构,就是:疑问词+不定式动词(question word + to-infinitive)。

  疑问词是疑问代词“who, whom, what, which, whose”和疑问副词“when, where, how, why ”。此外,连接词“whether”也适用。

  “疑问词+不定式动词”结构有何功用呢?其主要功用有下列五种:

  ⑴当主语,如:

  ● When to hold the meeting has not yet been decided.

  ● Where to live is a problem.

  ● How to cope with the rising cost of living becomes a daily discussion topic.

  ⑵当宾语,如:

  ● We must know what to say at a meeting.

  ● He could not tell whom to trust.

  ● Do you know how to play bridge?

  ⑶当补足语,如:

  ● The problem is where to find the financial aid.

  ● The question is who to elect.

  ⑷当名词同位语,如:

  ● Tom had no idea which book to read first.

  ● Do you have a rough impression how to do it?

  ⑸当宾语补足语,如:

  ● Jim is not sure whose to choose.

  ● Mary and John are not certain whether to get married or not.

  适用于“疑问词+不定式动词”的动词包括:“know, see, decide, tell, ask, consider, discover, explain, forget, guess, hear, imagine, inquire, learn, remember, think, wonder, understand”等。

  有点值得特别注意的是:当这结构当宾语时,它的作用等于名词分句,例如:

  ● I could not decide which dictonary to buy. / I could not decide which dictionary I should buy.

  ● Jack did not know where to find such a good teacher./ Jack did not know where he could find such a good teacher.

  有些动词,如“ask, show, tell, advise, inform, teach”等,可以先有个宾语,然后才接着加上适当的“疑问词+不定式动词” 结构。例如:

  ● The chief technician showed the apprentice how to repair the machine.

  ● Have you told him where to get the application form?

  综上所述,可见“疑问词+不定式动词”结构是个形象清新,既容易用又不容易出错的特别结构,可以多多运用。

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