bsp; be back
fall asleep/go to sleep → be asleep
２、make sure/be sure表示“采取措施以保证”之意时，从句中的时态用一般时或完成时。
1.Make sure that you ______(turn) off the light when you leave.
2.Make sure that you ________(finish) the work before six.
3.The hunter held his hand tightly to be sure that he didn't bow,either.
1.Tell him about that when he _______(come).
2.His daughter won't go to bed until she _______(finish) her homework.
3.We would get into trouble as soon as the gas _______( run ) out.
I have read all the book (that) you gave me.
4)先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the last 修饰时。
He is the only person that I want to talk to.
5)先行词既有人又有物时。They talked of things and persons that they remembered in the school.
This is the house where he lived last year.
This is the house that (which) he visited last year.
用no sooner…than和hardly…when引导的从句表示“刚……就……”。主句中的动词一般用过去完成时,从句用过去时;而且主句一般倒装,把助动词had提到前面。例如：Hardly had I entered the room when I heard a loud noise.
代词作主语时,主谓语序不变。Here it is. Here he comes.
South of the city lies a big steel factory.
From the valley came a frightening sound.
Present at the meeting were Professor White,Professor Smith and many other guests.
Gone are the days when they could do what they liked to the Chinese people.
Among the goods are Christmas trees, flowers, candles and toys.
He has been to Beijing. So have I.
Li Wei can’t answer the question. Neither can I.
用于省略if的虚拟条件状语从句。Had you reviewed your lessons,you might have passed the examination.
3.用于“形容词(或名词、动词)+as(though)引导的让步状语从句中。例如：Pretty as she is ,she is not clever.
Try as he would, he might fail again.
Child as he was, he had to make a living.
用于no sooner…than…,hardly…when和not until的句型中。Not until the teacher came did he finish his homework.
用于never,hardly,seldom,scarcely, barely, little,often,at no time,not only,not once等词开头的句子。
Never shall I do this again.
Little did he know who the woman was.
6.用于以only开头的句子(only修饰副词,介词短语或状语从句时)。Only this afternoon did I finish the novel.
Only in this way can you master English.
Only when he told me did I realize what trouble he was in.
Only Wang Ling knows this.
用于某些表示祝愿的句子。May you succeed!祝你成功!
stomach－stomachs，a German－three Germans,
an American－two Americans，man cook - men cooks;
papers 报纸, 文件 manners礼貌 drinks饮料
in a word 简言之?in other words 换句话说
have words with 与某人吵嘴
have a few words (a word) with sb.与某人说几句话
The crowd were running for their lives．
某些集体名词, 如people, police, cattle等, 只当复数看待, 谓语动词必须用复数。The police are searching for him.
d that she (should) stay in bed for a few days.
He demanded that we (should) start right away.
作advice,idea,order,demand,plan,proposal,suggestion,request等名词的表语从句和同位语从句,其谓语动词要用虚拟语气的结构“(should)＋动词原形”。例如：We all agreed to his suggestion that we(should) go to Beijing for sightseeing.
My idea is that we (should) do exercises first.
在feel, hear, notice, observe, see, watch, have, let, make等词后的补足语中,不定式不带to。但是这些句子如果变成被动结构时,就必须带to。例如：I often hear him sing the song.
He is often heard to sing the song.
注意：不定式动词在介词but, except, besides后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动词do的各种形式,那么,这些介词后的不定式不带to,否则要带to.如：
She could do nothing but cry.
What do you like to do besides swim?
I have no choice but to go.
作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点、工具等,不定式后面须有相应的介词。例如：He is looking for a room to live in.
There is nothing to worry about.
Please give me a knife to cut with.
There / It is no use/ good/ not any use/ good/ useless doing sth.
admit,appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, enjoy, escape, excuse, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, include, keep, mention,mind,miss,practise, put off, resist, risk, suggest, can’t help, can’t stand(无法忍受)等。
I tried not to go there.(我设法不去那里。)
I tried doing it again.(我试着又干了一次。)]
mean to do 有意... mean doing意味着...
I mean to come early today.(我打算今天早些来。)
Missing the train means waiting for another hour.
allow, advise, forbid, permit
We don’t allow smoking here. We don’t allow students to smoke.
The window needs(requires, wants)cleaning(to be cleaned).
在短语devote to, look forward to, pay attention to, stick to, be used to, object to,thank you for, excuse me for 等后的动词也必须用动名词形式：I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Badly polluted, the water cannot be drunk.(原因)
Being written in haste, the composition is full of mistakes.
Having been deserted by his guide, he couldn’t find his way through the jungle.(为了强调已完成的动作)
Asked to stay, I couldn’t very well refuse.
这里 asked 可能意味着 having been asked, 也可能意味着when/since I was asked, 但用了 having been asked 就不会有歧义。
Covered with confusion, I left the room.我很窘地离开了房间。
United, we stand; divided, we fall. 团结则存，分裂则亡。
He used to live in London, use(d)n’t he /didn’t he?
There used to be a cinema here before the war, use(d)n’t there /didn’t there?
Such things ought not to be allowed, ought they?
He ought to be punished, oughtn’t he?
但在正式文体中,用ought we not形式。例如:
We ought to go, ought we not?或We ought to go ,should we not?
含有情态动词must的句子表示推则,作“想必”解时,疑问部分不可用mustn’t。若前句强调对现在情况的推测,疑问部分用aren’t(isn’t)十主语,例如：You must be tired,aren’t you?若陈述部分的must表示“有必要”时,附加疑问句部分则用needn’t。例如：You must go home right now, needn’t you?
You mustn’t walk on grass, must you?
前句谓语动词是must have＋过去分词时,若前句强调对过去情况的推测(一般有过去时间状语),疑问部分的谓语动词用didn’t＋主语;若前句强调动作的完成,疑问部分的谓语动词用haven’t(hasn’t)＋主语, 例如：
He must have met her yesterday, didn’t he?
You must have seen the film, haven’t you?
陈述句谓语部分出现否定词缀时(前缀或后缀),疑问部分仍用否定结构。例如:He is unfit for his office, isn’t he?
如果陈述部分包含有no, never, hardly, seldom, few, little,nowhere, nothing等否定或半否定词时,疑问部分用肯定形式。例如：He is hardly 14 years old,is he?
Everyone knows his job, doesn’t he?
Everyone knows their job,don’t they?
No one was hurt,were they?
I’m late, aren’t I?
One can’t be too careful,can one(you)?
Have a cup of tea, will you?
Let’s go there,shall we? Let us go there,will you?
同位语从句跟在名词后面,进一步说明该名词的具体内容。引导同位语从句的名词主要有fact, news, promise, idea, truth等。连接词用that (不用which)及连接副词how, when, where, why等。例如：
His delay is due to the fact that the car went wrong halfway.
The news that our team has won the match is true.
She asked the reason why there was a delay.
The question is whether the film is worth seeing.
The news whether our team has won the match is unknown.
Whether we shall attend the meeting hasn’t been decided yet.
It hasn’t been decided whether(if)we shall attend the meeting.
It all depends (on) whether they will support us.
He doesn’t know whether to stay or not.
E)后面紧接or not 时。
We didn’t know whether or not she was ready.
Whether you like it or not, you must do it well.
G)用if会引起歧义时。例如：Please let me know if you like it.
1)先行词是不定代词：all,few,little, much,something,nothing,anything等。All that we have to do is to practise every day.
The first lesson that I learned will never be forgotten.
3)先行词被all,any,every, each, few,
Five minutes is enough to do this exercise．
Each boy and each girl wants to serve the people in future．
More than one student has seen the film.
Many a ship has been damaged in the storm.
More members than one are against your plan.
一些有两个部分构成的名词表示衣物或工具作主语时, 谓语通常用复数形式：glasses, clothes, trousers, shoes, compasses, chopsticks, scissors等。
但如果主语用a kind of , a pair of , a series of等加名词构成时, 谓语动词一般用单数形式。A pair of shoes was on the desk．
并列主语如果指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念时, 谓语动词用单数形式, 这时and后面的名词没有冠词。例如:
Truth and honesty is the best policy．
The girl’s teacher and friend is a young doctor．
To love and to be loved is the great happiness.
Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit.
A knife and fork is on the table.
当主语后面跟有as well as, as much as , no less than, along with, with, like, rather than, together with, but, except, besides, including, in addition to等引导的词组时, 其谓语动词的单、复数按主语的单、复数而定。例如:
The teacher as well as the students was excited．
The room with its furniture was rented．
A (great) number of修饰可数复数名词, 谓语动词用复数; a great deal of,a large amount of 修饰不可数名词, 其短语作主语时, 谓语动词用单数。
关系代词who, that, which等在定语从句中作主语时, 其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。例如:
Those who want to go please sign your names here．
Some of the energy that is used by man comes from the sun．
1/2 one(a) half 1/4 one(a) quarter
Those three beautiful large square old brown wood table
某些以a-开首的形容词例如：afraid，alike，alone，asleep，awake, alive 等只能作表语,不能作定语。
某些以-ly结尾的词是形容词而不是副词：friendly，lively， lovely，lonely，likely，deadly，silly，orderly, timely等。
2)free 免费地 freely自由地,无拘束地
4)late 晚，迟 lately 近来
5)most 极,非常 mostly主要地
bad/ill,badly worse worst little less least
表示一方不及另一方时，用“less＋原级＋than”的结构表示：This room is less beautiful than that one．
表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时，可在比较级前加表示程度的状语，如：even，a lot，a bit，a little，still，much，far, yet, by far等修饰：He works even harder than before．
注意:by far 通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般放在比较级的后面, 如放在前面,应在二者中间加“the”。
He is taller by far than his brother.
He is by far the taller of the two brothers.
He is superior to Mr Wang in mathematics．
The book on the table is more interesting than that on the desk．
A box made of iron is stronger than one made of wood．
A is three (four,etc.) times the size (height, length, width,etc) of B.
The new building is four times the size (the height) of the old one.
A is three (four, etc.) times as big (high, long, wide, etc.) as B.
Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲是欧洲的四倍大。
A is three (four,etc.) times bigger (higher, longer, wider) than B.
例如:Your school is three times bigger than ours.
表示两倍可以用 twice 或 double。
I’ve had so many falls that I’m black and blue all over.
Mr White got so little money a month that he could hardly keep body and soul together.
They are such little children that the they cannot clean the house by themselves.
在very, pretty, not后用nearly, 不用almost。例如：
I’m not nearly ready.
在any, no, none, never前用almost, 不用nearly。例如：
I almost never see her.
need 表示“需要”或“必须”,作情态动词时,仅用于否定句或疑问句中。在肯定句中一般用must, have to, ought to或should 代替。例如：
You needn’t come so early.
Need I finish the work today? －－Yes, you must.
注意：needn’t have done“表示本来不必做某事而实际上做了某事”。例如：You needn’t have waited for me.
“should have done”表示应该做到而实际上没有做到。
You should have started earlier.
“ought to have done”表示过去应做某事而实际未做。
You ought to have helped him (but you didn’t)
表示感觉,愿望和状态的某些动词如have, be, hear, see, like等词一般不用进行时。
有些动词形式上是主动结构,但表示被动的意思。常见的有可和 well, easily 等副词连用的不及物动词sell,wash,write,read,clean,cook等。例如：
The cloth washes well.这布很经洗。
The new product sells well.这新产品很畅销。
The pen writes well.这支笔很好写。
在动词 arrange,command, demand, desire,insist, order,propose, request, require, suggest等后面的宾语从句中用“(should)＋ 动词原形”(虚拟语气)例如：
We suggested that we (should) have a meeting.
We insisted that they (should) go with us.
The doctor ordere